EquipmentSolid state battery development

October 14, 2022by Bhawins0

Introduction to Solid State Battery Development

A lithium-ion battery is composed of cathode, anode, separator and electrolyte. A lithium-ion battery applied at smartphones, power tools and EVs uses liquid electrolyte solution. On the other hand, a solid-state battery uses solid electrolyte, not liquid.  

In contrast to the liquid or polymer gel electrolytes found in lithium-ion or lithium polymer batteries, solid-state batteries use solid electrodes and an electrolyte.

Although solid electrolytes were initially identified in the 19th century, a number of issues have hindered their widespread use. Starting in the 2010s, innovations in the late 20th and early 21st centuries have rekindled interest in solid-state battery technology, particularly in the context of electric cars.

Numerous issues with liquid Li-ion batteries, including their flammability, low voltage, unstable solid-electrolyte interphase development, poor cycling performance, and weak strength, may have possible remedies in solid-state batteries.

Ceramics (such as oxides, sulphides, and phosphates) and solid polymers are materials that have been proposed for use as solid electrolytes in solid-state batteries.

The use of solid electrolytes with strong ionic conductivity was necessary to employ solid state batteries to help overcome the primary issues with batteries using liquid electrolytes, namely leakage and/or corrosion at the electrodes, by limiting the ohmic drop at the electrodes.


Reasons to develop a solid-state battery


Why do we therefore require a solid-state battery? It is done to make EV batteries more powerful.

Internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles will be phased out in favour of electric vehicles, according to market research firms. It is crucial to expand the battery capacity of an EV battery in order for it to achieve the same level of mileage as the existing ICEV in order for it to become the undisputed leader in the industry.

There are two methods for boosting capacity. The first step is adding more batteries. But in this case, the battery price goes up and batteries take up so much space in the vehicle.

A solid-state battery has higher energy density than a Li-ion battery that uses liquid electrolyte solution.


Market developments for solid-state batteries

The solid-state battery is currently being developed by Samsung SDI. Along with other universities, including the Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology and the Samsung R&D Institute Japan, we are also working together to develop the battery.

Since 2013, Samsung SDI has been showcasing medium- to long-term solid-state battery technology at auto shows or battery expos. Additionally, we are currently in the phase of developing element technology for commercialization. We added that “we have observed the prospect of building a high-energy density and high-safety battery by integrating tested materials technology and our innovative materials, such as solid electrolyte,” in the conference call for the financial results for the second quarter of 2020.

The research outcome of a solid-state battery that was developed by the Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology was displayed in March. Due to their excellent thermal stability, solid-state batteries are substantially safer and more durable than conventional electric car batteries, making them one of the most promising options for the next generation of batteries.


The All-Solid-State Battery and its Future in Electric Vehicles


With its great thermal stability, solid-state batteries are substantially safer and more durable than conventional electric car batteries, making them one of the most promising options for the next generation of batteries.

Battery Types: All Solid State

Solid electrolytes, a carbon-free anode, and a composite cathode layer are all components of all-solid-state batteries (SSBs). Instead of migrating into the ionic salt dissolved in the solution, during charge or discharge, the ions migrate into the ironically conductive solid matrix.

Redox processes are used by solid-state batteries to store and transfer energy. The anode goes through oxidation while the cathode goes through reduction, enabling the battery to store and discharge energy as needed.

Solid-state batteries provide advantages.

Greater energy storage density, enhanced wear resistance, quick charging, and, most crucially, increased operational safety are all promised by all-solid-state batteries. Liquid electrolytes become volatile and combustible at high temperatures. However, the risk of fire or explosion is reduced by the excellent thermal stability of solid electrolytes.

Due to their small size, solid-state batteries have a higher energy density per unit area. In comparison to a lithium-ion battery of the same size, the energy density of a solid-state battery can be up to ten times higher.

High-density solid-state batteries can reach 10,000 cycles, whereas modern lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles typically last between 2,000 and 3,000 cycles before degrading noticeably.


Solid-state battery development and research

A novel rechargeable solid-state battery is being created by engineers at the University of California, San Diego in collaboration with LG Energy Solution. In place of lithium and carbon, scientists integrated a solid-state sulphide electrolyte and a silicon anode in one device.

During tests, the battery demonstrated its reliability, security, and high energy intensity. The prototype maintained 80% of its capacity at room temperature after 500 charge and discharge cycles. The technology offers fantastic opportunities for energy storage, electric transportation, and other fields.


New Electrode Design from MIT

Mixed ion-electronic conductors (MIECs), as well as electronic and lithium-ion insulators, have been created by MIT researchers. It has nanoscale MIEC tubes and a 3D honeycomb layout. Lithium is placed inside the tubes.

Outlooks for Solid-State Batteries in the Future

Solid-state batteries have long been anticipated as the next phase in the evolution of electric vehicles. Compared to liquid ones, they are less flammable, lighter, and can store more energy. Two significant barriers remained until recently: the price and longevity of such batteries.

Furthermore, solid-state batteries have a chemical flaw that is inherent to them. Lithium dendrites, which are tiny, twig-like lithium particles that develop and can enter the battery, cause short circuits and other problems, cause them to start decaying after a number of charge-discharge cycles.When these problems are resolved successfully, a new battery revolution will undoubtedly start in the future.


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