ChemistryApplications of green chemistry

January 24, 2023by Bhawins0

Introduction to green chemistry

Green chemistry refers to the development of chemical goods and procedures that lessen or do away with the use or production of hazardous materials. Green chemistry covers all aspects of a chemical product’s life cycle, including its creation, use, and final disposal.


Green chemistry refers to the development of chemical goods and procedures that lessen or do away with the use or production of hazardous materials. Green chemistry covers all aspects of a chemical product’s life cycle, including its creation, use, and final disposal. Organic chemistry protects against contamination at the atomic level. is a philosophy that applies to all of chemistry, not just one particular field of the subject utilizes cutting-edge scientific remedies to address current environmental issues because it stops pollutants from being produced, it leads to source reduction. Reduces the harmful effects of chemical goods and processes on the environment and human health

Reduces and occasionally eliminates risk in current products and procedures & creates chemical processes and products to lessen their inherent risks.


Green Chemistry is a branch of design for the environment that applies cutting-edge scientific methods to the production of products, which entails processes that reduce or completely eliminate hazardous compounds. In the past three decades, green chemistry has started to significantly alter our world. Due to a reduction in the amount of chemical waste released into the air, water, and land, green chemistry will be completely dependent on in the future for all branches of chemistry. Green chemistry’s 12 set of values, which reduce or eliminate the usage or production of hazardous ingredients, are crucial. When making medicines and conducting research, ecologically friendly, unharmful, repeatable, harmless solvents and catalysts can be used to achieve the principles of green chemistry. Utilizing unconventional methods to attain goals, such as UV energy and microwave irradiation is also important.


Applications of green chemistry

The field of green chemistry is spreading from academic research facilities to industry facilities. Sustainable techniques include producing recyclable catalysts, creating energy-efficient synthesis, promoting the use of renewable starting materials, and replacing volatile organic solvents, which make up the majority of a reaction’s material. Following the green chemistry principles has greatly enhanced many businesses’ turnover, which has had positive effects on the environment and the economy. This analysis examines numerous instances where green chemistry has significantly improved the sustainability factor of industrial processes and discusses the steps that should be made to support and popularize green synthesis practices.

The main goal of green chemistry is to build a sustainable future; it is not just a lab curiosity. Companies can market these concepts thanks to the growing number of green approaches created by academic and corporate experts. By implementing the green chemistry principles, industry, from small firms to huge organizations, has already taken strategic steps towards sustainability. A few examples of significant decisions that have been made that will ultimately have significant effects on the global chemical markets include the development of less dangerous commercial processes and products, the transition from inefficient chemical routes to bio-based synthesis, and the replacement of oil-based feed stocks with renewable starting materials.

According to an analysis by the Environmental Protection Agency, the US pharmaceutical industry reduced its usage of VOCs by 50% between 2004 and 2013 by implementing green chemistry principles. According to the EPA’s Toxics Release Inventory (TRI), the amount of chemical waste discharged into the air, land, and water dropped by 7% during the same period.


Four industrial medication manufacturing facilities in India’s Hyderabad region were recently shut down due to pollution. In order to address its rigorous environmental concerns, China has imposed regulations on 40% of the industrial facilities spread over 30 provinces. These policy changes imply that adopting green practices has become mandatory.


Despite having numerous uses, plastics have a negative reputation since they are made of non-renewable petrochemicals and are not biodegradable. However, as demonstrated by a study conducted by Utrecht University, the same can be produced using renewable fuel. According to studies from Utrecht University, the market for bio-plastics will expand by about 37% year up until 2013 and at a pace of 6% between 2013 and 2020. The movement to switch over to bioplastics from plastics has gained support from numerous marketing hubs. Wherever practical, Wal-Mart has been employing bioplastics for packaging. In a similar vein, Nokia, a manufacturer of mobile devices, employed 50% bio-plastics in both the Nokia C7 phone and the Nokia 3111 Evolve phone cover.


In comparison to the conventional approach, the BASF-introduced greener synthesis of ibuprofen only requires half as many steps. The new process’s atomic efficiency is almost two times that of the previous synthesis. BASF created the BASILTM (Bi-phasic Acid Scavenging Utilizing Ionic Liquids) process, which produces the general photo initiator precursor alkoxyphenylphosphine in an effort to create sustainable approaches. With the use of this technique, the yaield rose from 50 to 98%.


Letermovir, an antiviral medicine for cytomegalovirus infection, was successfully made using the concepts of green chemistry by the US-based Merck & Co., Inc. It is currently being tested in phase III of clinical trials. Common viruses like the cytomegalovirus (CMV) can infect people and often go unnoticed in healthy people, but they can seriously harm immunocompromised persons. The fact that this medication has been given Fast-Track status by the FDA and Orphan product designation by the European Medicines Agency for the prevention of CMV viremia in high risk populations indicates the significance of this medication.


A unique PTC-catalyzed Aza-Michael reaction based on cinchonidine is used in Merck’s greener synthesis to configure the single stereocenter as indicated. Additionally, the overall yield has increased by 60%, the cost of raw materials has decreased by 93%, and the amount of water used has decreased by 90%. Over the course of the life of Letermovir, it is predicted that this enhanced process will result in a reduction of more than 15,000 MT of waste. According to a Life-Cycle Assessment, using green technologies should reduce carbon emissions by 89%. The green synthesis of Letermovir makes it abundantly clear that green chemistry is not only beneficial to the environment but also profitable for business. The EPA’s Presidential Green Chemistry Award was given to this plan.


Solvents are used in the reaction and separation stages of the majority of chemical reactions to dissolve solids, reduce viscosity, adjust temperature, and recover products by extraction or recrystallization as reaction media or for cleaning. In addition to dissolving the reactants, solvents also have an impact on the reaction’s kinetics, chemo-, regio-, and stereoselectivities. Nevertheless, despite their inherent benefits, the bulk of organic solvents used in industry have negative impacts on both human health and the environment. In addition, many solvents come from non-renewable sources like petroleum. These criteria run counter to the fundamentals of green chemistry. These factors make substituting certain environmentally friendly solvents for these toxic ones the sole option. The following four directions were considered by Hunger Buhler.


  1. Swapping harmful solvents for ones that exhibit improved EHS (Environment, Health, Safety) characteristics, such as increased biodegradability or decreased ozone depletion potential.

2.Utilization of “bio-solvents,” or solvents made from renewable resources, such as ethanol produced through the fermentation of feeds that contain sugar, starchy feed materials, or lignocellulosic feed ingredients.

3.Chlorofluorocarbons are avoided and less ozone is lost when supercritical CO2 is used in place of organic solvents while processing polymers.

4.Less emissions into the air are achieved with ionic liquids that exhibit low or negligible vapour pressure.

There are a lot of uses for green chemistry that go beyond academic settings and find practical use in industry. To assess the environmental impact of the various “green” pharmaceuticals after they have passed through the human physiological system, much more work is needed, especially in the area of life-cycle analysis. A number of catalysts based on tetra-amido macrocyclic ligands that Terry Collins from the University of Pittsburgh created were modelled after peroxidase enzymes. Collins suggested that by adding these at the end of the sewage treatment process, it would be possible to break down a range of chemical drug residues before they have a chance to pollute the environment.


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